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» » Ознакомительные тексты для изучения материалов по теме «Государственное устройство и политическая система стран» (State structure and political system of the countries)

Ознакомительные тексты


Ознакомительные тексты для изучения материалов по теме «Государственное устройство и политическая система стран» (State structure and political system of the countries)

В этой подборке текстов вашему вниманию представляется информация о политическом устройстве трех государств — Великобритании, Соединенных Штатов Америки и Российской Федерации.

Обращаем ваше внимание на то, что вам рекомендуется прочитать данные тексты несколько раз: первый раз — чтобы выделить и выучить незнакомые слова, второй — чтобы ответить на вопросы, третий — пересказать.

The political system of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. Queen Elizabeth II, as head of State. The organs of government are: Parliament, the executive and the judiciary, the legislature.

Parliament, is the supreme authority. It comprises two chambers — the House of Lords and the House of Commons — together with the Queen in her constitutional role.

The executive consists of the central Government — that is the Prime Minister and Cabinet and other ministers, who are responsible for initiating and directing the national policy government departments, local authorities and public corporations.

The judiciary determines common law arid interprets status and is independent of both the legislature and the executive.

The Government derives its authority from the elected House of Commons. A general election, for all seats in the House of Commons, must be held at least every five years. The Government is normally formed by the political party which is supported by the majority in the House of Commons. The party’s leader is appointed Prime Minister by the Queen and chooses a team of ministers, of whom 20-or so are in the Cabinet. The second largest party becomes the Official Opposition with its own leader and «Shadow Cabinet». The House of Commons comprises members from the constituencies in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland who represent people whose history and traditions differ.

The House of Lords is a hereditary Chamber.
In Great Britain there is no written constitution, only customs, traditions and precedents.

monarch — монарх
government — правительство
the supreme authority — верховная власть
legislature — законодательная власть
executive — исполнительная власть
judiciary — судебная власть
derive — получить, извлекать
general election — всеобщие выборы
precedent — прецедент

1. What form of Government is there in Britain?
2. What are the organs of the British Govermment?
3. What elements does the British Parliamen consist of?
4. What is the legislature?
5. What does the executive consists of?
6. Where does the Government derive its authority from?
7. How often must a general election be held?
8. Who becomes leader of the Opposition?
9. Is the British Constitution peculiar?

The political system of the United States Of America

The United States of America, a federation of 50 states was set up by the Constitution in 1787. Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches.

The legislative power is vested in Congress. It is made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 100 senators and 435 members in the House of Representatives. Both houses must approve the bill for it to become a law. But before each bill is sorted by a committee. There are 16 standing committees in the Senate and 20 in the House of Representatives.

The executive branch is headed by the President, who proposes bill to Congres, enforces federal laws, administers national government, makes treates, serves as commandcr-in-chief of the armed forces and appoints higher officers. The President can veto a bill unless Congress by a two-thirds vote shall overrule him. The President is the head of the Cabinet which today has eleven members.

The judicial branch is made up of Federal District Courts. 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President for life. Federal Courts decide cases involving federal law conflicts between states or between states or between citizens of different states. The Supreme Court may rule the law to be unconstitutional.

The Sectors are elected by popular vote for a term of six years two from each state, the Representatives are elected for two-year terms.

The President is chosen in nation-wide elections every four years together with the Vice-President.

to vest in — облачить
to approve — одобрить
bill — законопроект
standing army — постоянная армия
to administer — управлять
to veto — наложить запрет
Supreme Court — Верховный Суд
popular vote — всенародное голосование

The political system of the Russian Federation

The Russian Federative Republic is set up by the Constitution of 1993. Under the Constitution Russia is a Presidential Republic. The federal government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Each of them is checked and balanced by the President.

The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly. It consists of two chambers. The Upper Chamber is the Council of Federation. The Lower Chamber is the State Duma (a Constituent Assembly). Kach Chamber is headed by a speaker. Legislature may be initiated in either of the two Chambers. But to become a law a bell must be approved by both chambers and signed by the President. The President may veto the bill.

The President serves as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, he makes treates, enforces federal laws, appoints members of the executive departments to be approved by the Federal Assembly.

The executive power belongs to the Government which is headed by the Prime Minister. The first action of the Prime Minister on appointment is to choose the Ministers who are responsible for framing Government policy. The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court.

The members of the Federal Assembly are elected by popular vote for a four- year period.

Today the state symbol of Russia is a three coloured banner. It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. The white stripe symbolizes the earth, the blue one stands for the sky, and the red one symbolizes liberty. It was the first state symbol that replaced the fbmer symbols in 1991. The hymn of Russia is «The Patriotic Song» by M. Glinka. A new national emblem is a two-headed eagle. It is the most ancient symbol of Russia. It originates from the heraldic emblem of the Ryricovitchies. So far all these symbols are unofficial. They have not been approved by the Federal Assembly.

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