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New Zealand (Общая информация о Новой Зеландии)

Продолжение раздела «Cultural Reader», информационные материалы о Новой Зеландии.
Следующая статья - New Zealand’s Main Cities (Основные города Новой Зеландии).

New Zealand

New Zealand is an Island Nation, situated between the Equator and the South Pole in the southern Pacific Ocean. It is situated the same distance east from Australia as London is from Moscow. The distance between the two countries is about 1600 kilometres. The countries are separated by the Tasman Sea. Its nearest neighbours to the North are New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga.

New Zealand includes two main and a number of smaller islands. Each of the two main islands (North and South Islands) is hilly and mountainous. The main mountain ranges are on the South Island and include the Southern Alps, in which 20 peaks exceed 3000 metres. The highest peak is Mount Cook on South Island.

A volcanic plateau is in the center of North Island. There are thee active volcanoes in North Island, and the Rotorua district is known for its geysers and hot spring. Volcanic action also played a part in the formation of the islands, especially on the North Island, where the process still continues. Earthquakes are frequent there. As a result of the movement of these tectonic plates many mountains have been lifted above the lowlands or reduced. In 1991 an avalanche reduced the highest peak, Mount Cook, from 3764 metres to 3754 metres.
New Zealand has an oceanic climate, without extremes of heat or cold. Snow is common only in the mountains. The eastern lowlands include the driest and sunniest climates.

The population of the country is small, 3.6 million people. Three fourths of New Zealanders live on North Island. The largest center of population is Auckland. The capital of the country is Wellington.

New Zealand is an independent state and a member of the Commonwealth. The British monarch is the head of state, represented by the Governor General. As in Great Britain, the legislature is called the Parliament. In New Zealand the Parliament consists of a single chamber, the House of Representatives. Its members are elected every three years. There are 120 members in the House of Representatives. The leader of the party in power becomes the prime minister, who heads the formal Executive Council. There are 38 government departments in the country. Most ministers have charge of more than one department.

The Parliament seats in Wellington in the building, which is called the Beehive because of its form. The prime minister’s residence in Wellington is known as Vogel House.

New Zealand’s dairy industry is considered to be the most efficient. The export of dairy products is the largest in the world despite the country’s small size and population. Other industries are textiles, machinery, fish, forest products. Agriculture is highly industrialized. New Zealand is often called the sheep farm of Great Britain.

The largest cities of the country are Wellington, Auckland, Christchurch.

English and Maori are the official languages, also English is the main language.

Следующая статья раздела - New Zealand’s Main Cities (Основные города Новой Зеландии).

Вернуться в раздел >>> Варианты ЕГЭ

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