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» » Ознакомительные тексты для изучения материалов по теме «Высшее образование в Британии, США и России» (Higher education in Britain, The USA and Russia)

Ознакомительные тексты


Ознакомительные тексты для изучения материалов по теме «Высшее образование в Британии, США и России» (Higher education in Britain, The USA and Russia)

В этой подборке текстов вашему вниманию представляется информация о системе высшего образования трех государств — Великобритании, Соединенных Штатов Америки и Российской Федерации.

Еще раз обращаем ваше внимание на то, что вам рекомендуется прочитать данные тексты несколько раз: первый раз — чтобы выделить и выучить незнакомые слова, второй — чтобы ответить на вопросы, третий — пересказать.

University education in Great Britain

There arc 46 universities in Britain. But not all univesities are equal. They differ from one another in history, tradition, academic organization. Not all British universities are backed by a well-known reputation.
Oxford and Cambridge, the oldest universities are world-known for their academic excellence. The University of London has the size and breadth to rank among the UK’s top universities.

A university usually consists of colleges. The departments of the colleges are organized into faculties.
University teaching in the UK differs greatly at both undergraduate anci postgraduate levels from that in many othe countries.
An undergraduate progromme consists of a series of lectures, seminars, tutorials and laboratory classes which in tots account for about 15 hours per week.

Following a particular programme students take series of lecture coursts which may last one academic term or the whole year. Associated with each lecture course are seminars, tutorials laboratory" classes which illustrate tlie topics presented in the lectures.

Lectures are given to large groups of students (from 20 to 200). Seminars and tutorials are much smaller than lecture classes and in some departments can be on a one-to-one basis (one member of staff and one student).

Students prepare work in advance for seminars and tutorials. And this can take the form of researching a topic for discussion by writing essays or by solving problems. Lectures, seminars and tutorials arc all one hour in length, laboratory classes last two or three hours. Much emphasis is put’ on the private study nature of a UK- degree. Each student has a tutor whom he can consult on any matter whether academic or personal.

The academic year is split into three terms. Formal teaching takes place in the first two terms which last for twenty four weeks in total. The third term is reserved for classes and examinations and lasts for six weeks.
Universities teach in all major subject areas: arts, science, law, engineering, medicine, social sciences.
University staffs are at the foreground of knowledge in their subject. The teaching encourages students to team in the most effective way.
University degree courses extend from three to four years. After three yeas of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts or Science. He can continue to take his Master’s Degree and then the Doctor’s.

Arts — искусств
Science — наука
essay — письменная работа
tutor — наставник
staff — штат преподавателей (персонал)
academic year — учебный год

1. How many universities are there in Great Britain?
2. What differs one university from another?
5. What does an undergraduate programme coneist of?
4. How long may a lecture course last?
5. How long one must study to get the Degree of Bachelo (Master, Doctor)?

University education in the United States of America

There is no Nattional University in the USA. Each state controls and supports at least one University. The National Goverment gives no direct financial aid to these sfte schools. The students do not go to the University free of charge. Everyone must pay a tuition fee. The amount various from state to state. Students’ lotal expenses throughout the year arc very high. This creates a financial hardship for fome people. Though each University offers a number of scholarships many of the students have to work to pay their expenses.

Most of the Us Universities have a central campus. Colleges of Law, Business, Medicine, Engineering, Music, and Journalism can be found on one campus. Thus a student can attend courses at various colleges.

The students do not take the same courses. During the first two years they follow a basic programme. It means that every student must select at least one course from each of the basic fields of study: English, science, modem languages, hustor or physical education.

After the first two years every student majors in one subject and minors in, another. A student can major in history and minor in sociality. In addition to these major and minor courses he can select other subjects according to his professional interest.

After completing four years of study the students receive a Bachelor Degree (either B. A. or B. S.) with an additional year of study he may receive a Maker’s

Degree and after two or three years of graduate work and writing of the dissertation he receives a Doctorate Degree. Over four years at tile end of each year students have a final written examination. They take oral exams and write a dessertation only for advanced degrees.

Education in Russia

Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is guaranteed by the Constitution and ensured by the broad development of compulsory secondary education, vocational, specialized secondary and higher education, by the development of extramural, correspondence and evening courses, by the provisions of state scholarships, grants ard previleges for students.

In Russia there is a nine-year compulsory education, but to enter a university one has to study two years more.

School starts at the age of six for Russian children. But most of them have leamt letters in kindergarten which is now part of primary school. Primary and secondary schools together comprise eleven years of study. Bveiy school has a «core curriculum» of Russian, mathematics, science, FT. A variety of elective subjects are taught at lyceums ard gymnasiums.

After finishing secondary school, lycenm or gymnasium one can go on to higher education. All applicants must take competitive examinations. Entrence examinations are held in July and August. Higher educational institutions are headed by Rectors. Prorectors are in charge of the academic and scientific work. Higher educational unstitutions train undergraduates and graduate students in one or several specializations. The faculties are headed by the Deans. There are departments within faculties. The system of higher education in Russia is going through a transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: decentralization of the higher education system, development of the autonomy of higher educational institutions, expantion of academic freedoms of faculties and students, development of new financial mechanism. All Russian schools until recently have been state-subsidized.

In the terms of the ration of students to the total population Russia ranks among the top ten countries in the world.

The Russian educational policy is a combination of economic and social objectives. An educated person contributes more to the society and education on the otiher hand gives a person the prospect for professional advance. The citizens of Russia show a great concern for education for themselves and their children.
Institutions of higher education include: technical training schools, teachers training colleges, universities which offer masters and doctoral, degrees programmes. The faculties have specialized councils for conferring advanced academic degrees.

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