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» » Ознакомительные тексты по темам: Страны, Города, Политическая система, Высшее образование, Календарь праздников (The Countries, Cities, Political system, Higher education, Calendar of Holidays)

Ознакомительные тексты

27.03.2011

Ознакомительные тексты по темам: Страны, Города, Политическая система, Высшее образование, Календарь праздников (The Countries, Cities, Political system, Higher education, Calendar of Holidays)

Начать публикации данного раздела мы решили текстов по наиболее употребительным темам, традиционно предлагаемым для освоения учащимся старших классов школ с углубленным изучением английского языка и студентам при обучении в высших учебных заведениях.

Проработка предлагаемых текстов позволит вам вести беседу по выбранной теме, вы сможете познакомиться с общеизвестными фактами и событиями, а также благодаря широко представленным в них наиболее употребительным лексическим единицам сделать сообщение на новую интересующую вас тему.

Чтобы вам легче было ориентироваться в данных текстах, в них были выделены основные подразделы, позволяющие создать общее представление о конкретной теме.

Изучив предлагаемый материал, вы не растеряетесь при сдаче экзамена, а при общении с носителями языка сможете вести беседу, используя информацию, заложенную в предлагаемых тематических текстах. Рекомендуем прочитать текст несколько раз: первый раз — чтобы выделить и выучить незнакомые слова, второй — чтобы ответить на вопросы, третий — пересказать.

Итак, для удобства освоения материала все тексты будут разбиты на несколько отдельных публикаций, разделенных по принципу охвата какой-то одной общей тематики. В данном случае — страны, города (столицы), политическая система, образование, праздники.

Ниже приведены тексты, содержащие общую информацию о трех странах — Великобритании, США и России. Это первая часть предлагаемых вам материалов для освоения темы.

Learning languages

The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years. Forein languages are needed as the main and the most efficient means of information exchange of the people of our planet. Today English is the language of the world. Over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South African Republic. As a second language it is used in the former British and US colonies.

It is not only the national or official language of some thirty states which represent different cultures, but it is also the major international language for communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations. It is the language of literature, education, modern music, international tourism. Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning English for the purpose of communication is especially urgent today.

So far there is no universal or ideal method of learning languages. Everybody has his own way. Sometimes it is boring to study grammar or to learn New words:. But it is well known that reading books in the original, listening to the ВВС news, communicating with the English speaking people will help a lot. When learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history of the native speakers. One must work hard to learn any foreign language.

Great Britain

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland occupies the territory of the British Isles. It is situated on the Northwest coast of Europe. The UK consists of four parts. They are: England, Scotland, Wales and Northen Ireland. The UK is situated on the British Isles. There are some 5.500 islands. The two main islands are: Great Britain and Ireland. They are separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The west coast of the country is washed by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, the east coast is washed by the North Sea. The area of the UK is some 244,100 km2. Its population is over 57 million people.

English is the official, but not the only language used in the country. Britain has been many centuries in the maiding. The Romans conquered most part of Britain, but were unable to subdue the fiercely independent tribes in the West and in the North. Further waves of invaders followed: Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings and Normans. All these contributed to the mixture we call English. For many centuries this country was known simply as England. It had a strong army and navy. It waged numerous colonial wars. England, once «the workshop of the world», was the first to become a highly industrial country.

Geographically the island of Great Britain is subdivided into two main regions: Lowland Britain and Highland. Lowland Britain comprises Southland and Eastern England. Highland Britain consists of Scotland, most of Wales, the Pennines and the Lake District. The highest mountain — Ben Nevis — is in Scotland. The flora of the British Isles is much varied and the fauna is similar to that of the northwest of Europe. The country is not very rich in natural resources but they were sufficed for the Industrial Revolution to start.

There are many rivers in Great Britain. The Severn is the longest river; the Thames is the most important one. London is the capital of the UK. It was founded by the Romans. The population of London is over 8 million people.

The largest cities of Great Britain besides London are: Birmingham, Glasgo, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds, and Edinburgh.

Great Britain is a monarchy. The Queen of Great Britain is not absolute, but constitutional. Her powers are limited by Parliament. The power is hereditary. The British Parliament consists of the sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has always played an important role in world politics.

Vocabulary:
kingdom — королевство
to conquer — завоевать
to subdue — подчинить
to contribute to — внести вклад, способствовать
domination — господство
to win (won, won) — завоевать, одержать победу
independence — независимость

Questions:
1. Where is the UK situated?
2. What parts does the UK consist of?
3. How many centuries has Britain been in the maiding?
4. What country is Great Britain?
5. What are the largest cities of Great Britain?

United States of America

The United States of America stretches from the Atlantic seaboard, acres the central plains, over the Rocky Mountains to the densely populated west coast, then halfway across the Pacific to the island state of Hawaii. America is a land of physical contrasts, including the weather. The southern parts of Florida, Texas, California, and the entire state of Hawaii, have warm temperatures year round; most of the -United States is in the temperate zone with four distinct seasons and varying numbers of hot and cold days each season, while the northern states and Alaska have extremely cold winters.

The-United States is also a land of numerous rivers and lakes. The northern state of Minnesota is known as land of 10.OOO lakes. The Mississippi River is the world’s third river after the Nile and the Amazon. A canal south of Chicago joins one of the tributaries of the Mississippi to the five Great Lakes. The St. Lawrence Seaway connects the Great Lakes

American farmers’ plant spring wheat on the cold western plains: raise corn, wheat and fine beef cattle in the Midwest. Florida and California are famous for their vegetables and fruit production, and the northwestern states are known for apples, pears, berries and vegetables.

A wealth of minerals provides a solid base for American industry. The United States of America was founded in 1776. The Constitution was adopted in 1787. 26 amendments have been introduced since then. The first 10 amendments are known as the Bill of the Rights (1790). The Constitution operates today and sets the basic forms of the US government.

At present the population of USA is about two hundred and thirty nine million. The USA is called the «nation of immigrants». The country was settled, built and developed by generations of immigrants and their children. Many different cultural traditions, ethnic sympathies, racial groups and religious affiliations make up the people of the USA.

There are many big cities in the USA, such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Dallas, Boston, San Francisco, etc.

The nation’s capital Washington, D. C. with more than 3,4 million people is the largest metropolitan area in the country. Lay out by the French architect in the late eighteenth century it was the world’s first city especially planned as a centre of government.

The USA became the world leading country at the beginning of the twcntieth century.

Vocabulary:
stretch — простираться
fertile — плодородный
valleys — долины
tributary — приток
соrn — кукуруза

Questions:
1. Where is the USA situated?
2. Why is America a land of contrasts?
3. What rivers and lakes are there on the territory of the United States of America?
4. What provides a solid base for American Industry?
5. When was the US founded?
6. What sets the basic form of the US government?
7. Why is the USA caned’ the nation of immigrants’?
8. What are the big cities of the USA?
9. What is the capital of the USA?

Russian Federation (Russia)

The vast territory of Russia lies in the eastern part of Europe and in the northern part of Asia. In area, it is one of the largest countries in the world.

Airlines service many cities throughout the country. A flight from Moscow to Magadan takes eight hours. Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. The oceans are: the Atlantic, the Arctic, the Pacific. The northern and eastern coasts of Russia are washed by the White Sea, the Barents Sea and by the Okhotsk Sea.

The land of Russia varies a lot from heavy forests to bare deserts, from high peaked mountains to deep valleys. Russia is located on two plains. They are: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Plain. There are three main mountain chains in Russia. The Urals, the longest mountain chain, separates Europe from Asia. There are various types of climate on the territory of Russia. But the temperate zone with four distinct seasons prevails. Russia is a land of long rivers and deep lakes. The broad Volga River system is of great historic, economic and cultural importance to Russia. It became the cradle of such ancient towns as Vladimir, Tver, Yaroslavl, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod.

Numerous canals join all the rivers in the European part of Russia, making it the European’s largest inland water transportation route.

The Volga River runs in the Caspian Sea, which is in reality, the largest lake in the world. The Baikal is the deepest lake in the world.

The European part of Russia is densely populated. There are a lot of cities, towns and villages there.
Russia is rich in natural resources. It has deposits of coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, nickel, etc.
Russia boarders on fourteen countries, including the former Republics of the USSA, which are now independent states.

The history of Russia dates back to the year 862. Now Russia is a Presidential Republic. Russia has always played an important role in the world. It is one of its leading Powerses.

Questions:
1. Where does the territory of Russia lie?
2. What is the surface of Russia?
3. What is the role of the Volga River in the history of Russia?
4. What natural resources are deposited there in Russia?
5. What countries does Russia boarder on?


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